Time consciousness in the neural illusion
(Jikan ninshiki to iu sakkaku : nisengohyakunen no nazo o toku)
Chapter 6


"Quantum as a spherical wave"

来訪者カウンター 

* It is a report of only the Internet.


 Norimichi Shuto
(Author)

Japanese page
A mystery of the time consciousness



Contents

Part6 Time of Quantum and Elementary Particle

   1 Quantum as a spherical wave
       - Time in a pure simple substance -

   2 True character of gravity

   3 What is mass?
      - Coincidence of inertial mass and gravitational mass -

   4 Possibility of an antigravity (repulsion) substance
      - The structure of inertial mass zero -
 

 -References-





Part6 Time of Quantum and Elementary Particle


1 Quantum as a spherical wave - Time in a pure simple substance -

In this book, I explained as follows. The flow of a time exists only as a result of our recognition. It is like the illusion which our brain made. The explanation about the essence of "reality" has been tried from viewpoints of language, physical actual existence, etc. with the hypothesis as the starting point.
Especially in chapter 4, I introduced the relation theory that the relation of multiple objects produced a "motion" of an object. The "motion" in the face of us only looks such in the relation with us, and the relation with other objects, and the "motion" itself is not the attribute of the object itself. In this chapter, I further delve into this viewpoint and consider it. And I propose "the quantum (elementary particle) as a spherical wave." At this time, even "gravity", "inertia motion", and also explanation of "mass" are achieved. I clarify it gradually. This section is the prologue.

If a "motion" is not the attribute of the moving object itself, is time flowing in the object simple substance? Is time flowing in the pure single existence in the condition of having been separated from the relation with other objects?

In order to consider "pure simple substance", I make "the bucket of Newton" the starting point of argument. "The bucket of Newton" is one of the thought experiments of Newton. This is the subject matter of a dispute of Newton and Leibniz which continued for a long time, and is an unsolved mystery still now.

Newton and Leibniz have invented differentiation at the almost same time. They argued about which is early. The discord of Newton and Leibniz is not only it. The structure of the real world was also one of the points of argument of theirs. Newton supported absolute space and Leibniz supported relative space.
If the real world is absolute space, an absolute coordinate will exist in somewhere in worlds. If based on the coordinates, we can measure a "motion" of all the objects. That is, a "motion" becomes a real thing. Newton supported this way of thinking.
Conversely, if the real world is relative space, an absolute coordinate will not exist anywhere in the world. Since there are no coordinates of a basis, we cannot but realize a "motion" of all the objects to be a relation between objects. That is, the "motion" cannot exist. Leibniz supported this way of thinking.
It is the concept of "rotation" which Newton presented as counterevidence to a relation theory. In a relation theory, a "motion" is not the attribute of the object itself which moves. A "motion" is only observed as a "moving" from a relation with other objects. If that is right, what relation is "rotation" of an object?
If our view is changed, we can regard "rotation" as a result of an observer's recognition. For example, that the moon has always turned one field to the earth is the story known also by the child. That is, the moon is not rotating for us (observer) on the earth. Even so, nobody thinks "the moon is an object in the absolute state of rest floating in absolute space." The moon is turning around the surroundings of the earth. The earth is turning around the surroundings of the sun. As the result, in space, the moon is moving at frightful speed and is rotating. That is, it can explain "Quiescence and rotation are only the results of recognition of humans."

But, Newton proposes the example of a "bucket." Newton shows the proof in which "rotation" does not exist as a result of a relation with other objects. It is in "SCHRODINGER'S KITTENS AND THE SEARCH FOR REALITY" (JOHN GRIBBIN) as follows.

"Newton himself described a neat experiment which seems to show that there really is a preferred frame of reference in the Universe, and later philosophers said that this experiment indicates just what it is that defines the absolute standard of rest. Writing in the Principia in 1686, Newton described what happens if you take a bucket of water hung from a long cord, twist the cord up tightly, and then let go. The bucket, of course, starts to spin as the cord untwists. At first, the surface of the water in the bucket stays level, but as friction gradually transfers the spinning of the bucket to the water itself, the water begins to rotate as well, and its surface takes up a concave shape, as ‘centrifugal force’ pushes water out to the sides of the bucket. Now, if you grab the bucket to stop it spinning, the water carries on rotating, with a concave surface, but gradually slows down, becoming flatter and flatter, until it stops moving and has a completely flat surface.
Newton pointed out that the concave shape of the surface of the rotating water shows that it ‘knows’ that it is rotating. But what is it rotating relative to? (...the omission of the middle part...) So, Newton reasoned, the water ‘knows’ whether or not it is rotating relative to absolute space." (P227)

Suppose that we put water into a bucket and rotate it. At this time, as for water, the surface rises along the edge of the bucket. That is, centrifugal force is produced. When we think "rotation exists not as the attribute of the object itself but as an observation result of an observer", we cannot explain "centrifugal force." "Centrifugal force" is the attribute of object itself. That is, "rotation" is proving existence of a "motion" as object itself and absolute space. Newton has proposed such.

Does only the relation between objects exist in space? Or does an absolute basis exist in somewhere?
Surely centrifugal force exists. Newton conducted the next thought experiment further, in order to explain the situation where centrifugal force is produced. The left figure is quotation from "Mystery of space Mystery of time -Physics and philosophy approach the beginning of the universe-" (by Uchii Soushichi) P87. Uchii Soushichi who is a philosopher of science explains as follows.

"He submitted another thought experiment as shown in Fig. 18 following the experiment of a bucket. It is supposed that two balls are connected with a string. Supposing this system is drifting the inside of the universe, in which of this system and other objects, we cannot decide whether to be a moving only by seeing local and relative motion with other objects.However, if it is rotating focusing on the center of gravity (decided by two mass and distance) of two balls, (using the dynamics of Newton), the speed of this rotational movement, and absolute velocity should be able to be decided by measuring the tension which acts on a string. If it is a straight-line motion, absolute motion may not become clear irrespective of the existence of other objects. However, if it is rotational movement, even if there are other objects, even if there are empty in the universe, the string's tension should show absolute revolving speed. This is a thought experiment of Newton. " (P86-87)



Newton considered that the rotating object was equivalent to the condition that two objects are connected with a string. From the example of the moon, we cannot judge whether the object is actually rotating only by observing. However, if the tension of the string which connects two objects is measured, we can know whether centrifugal force has arisen there. That is, we can measure absolute rotation. It is pointing to existence of absolute space at the same time. This "bucket of Newton" is unsolved also in the present age in an essential meaning.

However, I feel that it is the proof of "rotation" being pseudo- existence rather about "two balls connected with a string" which Newton presented as a proof of absolute space. That is, when the object which must be multiple inertia systems originally passes, they are tied up with "string", such as gravity. And they shift from original going straight and are continuing being adjusted. We observe the process as "rotation." (If Einstein's theory of gravitation is used, we can express it as "two objects continue doing inertia motion along with distortion of the space which the partner's object made".)
Therefore, when the "string" which connects "two balls" of a thought experiment is cut with scissors, two balls should be divided to the two original inertia systems, and should resume linear uniform motion. That is, it is a relation between inertia systems that has produced centrifugal force (tension inside "an object").
However, only one more problem remains further at this time.
Because the number of two balls of the thought experiment of Newton is two, they consist of multiple objects. Therefore, we can also divide it into multiple inertia systems. Then, if the rotating object is "a pure simple substance", is rotation of the object true rotation? If it is right and rotation of "a pure simple substance" is measurable, it will become the proof of the absolute space which must have been denied in the present. However, the experiment with famous Michelson's invariable speed of light proves that an absolute basis does not exist in the universe. Therefore, the "pure simple substance" should not be rotating and centrifugal force should not have arisen. Probably, a pure simple substance is one quantum (elementary particle). If the form of a quantum (elementary particle) is the "true sphere" which does not have a difference in front and rear, right and left, it must completely be meaningless for testing the upper and lower sides, a direction, rotation, etc. There is only the fact that the quantum (elementary particle) merely exists in the place. When more than two quantums (elementary particle) are observed, for the first time, a direction is produced and "rotation" is produced.

However, this explanation is not enough. Mr. Ernst Mach who tried to develop the relation theory explained that centrifugal force arose also from the "relation" of the object and object of the whole universe, and he has proposed the "bucket of Mach" which produces centrifugal force with a relation with the whole universe. However, the mystery how the rotating bucket perceives "a relation with the whole universe" arises.
Moreover, this mystery has origin the same as the problem what inertia motion is. It is "inertia motion" that a standing object continues standing it still and a moving object is continues moving. Is "inertia motion" motion in a relation with absolute space? Or is it motion in a relation with the substance of the whole universe?
Einstein supported the latter. "Schrodinger's kittens" have as follows.

"As I have mentioned, Mach’s ideas, essentially an extension of those of Berkeley, strongly influenced Einstein, who argued that the identity between gravitational and inertial mass does indeed arise because inertial forces are really gravitational in origin, and tried to incorporate Mach’s Principle – the feedback of the entire Universe on any gravitational mass – into his general theory of relativity. It is fairly easy to make a naive argument along these lines. All the mass in all the distant galaxies (and anything else) reaches out with a gravitational influence to hold on to everything here on Earth (and everywhereelse), including, say, the pile of computer disks sitting on my desk. When I try to move one of those disks, the amount of effort I have to put into the task is a measure of how strongly the Universe holds that disk in its grip."(P228)

"Gravity" and "force of inertia", and also "mass" are the targets after the following section, and I only introduce these in this section. But as an introduction which is a role of this section, I outline the contents of the next section. When it considers that the quantum (elementary particle) which are a "pure simple substance" are a "true sphere" and also "the wave which vibrates spherically", it does not have to be based on absolute space, it is not necessary to think of a relation with the substance of the whole universe, and explanation of those all is achieved.

A "true sphere" is one of the form which was extremely common in the nature. Many heavenly bodies are "true spheres" (although there is distortion of some), and the drop of water which is falling becomes a "true sphere." Gravity is spherically emitted toward the whole universe.
Of course, those facts are not the perfect proof of a "pure simple substance" becoming a "true sphere." However, one per piece of the contents of the following section resolves the mystery of various things with very sufficient convenience. The process itself should prove the validity of the way of thinking.

I will go ahead with a story. I explained in introduction that the structure of a "pure simple substance" was not only "a true sphere" but "a wave which vibrates spherically." In order to explain it, it is necessary to touch the way of thinking of quantum mechanics.


Famous "Double slit experiment" symbolizes the mysteriousness of a quantum.
Fig. 1 shows the experiment of one slit. Two boards are prepared as experiment equipment. A long and slender hole (slit) is made in one of the boards. And distance with another board (screen) is set up and put in order. When light is sent from the slit side (left), the belt of a long and slender light will project on a screen in the form of a slit. In Fig. 1, one electron (photon) is discharged from the left. Although one electron (photon) leaves only one marks to the screen, when it is repeated repeatedly, the belt of light will emerge little by little on the screen of the right.

Next, one slit is increased to two (Fig. 2). When light is sent from the left, not the belt of the light for two slits but striped "interference fringes" will project on the screen of the right. It is considered that this experiment is the proof of light being a wave till the beginning of the 20th century.Such a phenomenon usually exists also in the world. For example, sound is a wave transmitted in air. Also with the stereo of an audio, with the position which listens to music, sound becomes large or becomes small. And it is because they will make the fluctuating part of sound, and the small part of the wave of sound.
It was an established theory that the true character of light is a "wave" by this experiment till the beginning of the last century. However, by development of the experiment method, light was narrowed down even to the limit and the experiment by a photon was achieved (Fig. 3). Then, while flying one photon repeatedly, "interference fringes" is gradually made on the screen. One photon which is existence of a simple substance purely makes the interference fringes which are the features of a wave on the screen in collaboration with other photons. In recent years, the same result as this was brought about by one electron.
"Copenhagen interpretation" is in the most general interpretation in quantum mechanics about this strange experiment. A photon and an electron pass a double slit as a wave, and contract it within an instant as particles on the screen. "Copenhagen interpretation" is explained such. "Schrodinger's kittens" have as follows.



"The key concept is the so- called ‘collapse of the wave function’. In seeking to explain how an entity such as a photon or an electron could ‘travel as a wave but arrive as a particle’, Bohr and his colleagues said that it was the act of observing the wave that made it ‘collapse’ to become a particle. We can see this at work in the electron version of the experiment with two holes – the electron passes through the experiment as a wave, then ‘collapses’ into a single point on the detector screen. But this is only part of the story. How can the wave of a single electron interfere with itself, and how does it choose which point on the screen to collapse onto? According to the Copenhagen Interpretation, this is because what actually passes through the experiment is a wave of probability, not a material wave at all. The equation that describes how a quantum wave moves – the wave equation derived by the Austrian Erwin Schrödinger – is not describing a material wave like the ripples on a pond, but is actually describing the probability of finding the photon (or electron, or whatever) at a particular place."(P10)

A photon and an electron have mysteriousness also besides having the character of both particles and a wave with one. Why does it make "interference fringes" tidily on a screen? Copenhagen interpretation explains that it is because a photon and an electron exist as "a wave of probability." What kind of meaning is it as the photon and electron which should exist really are "the existence as probability"? There is still no method of describing it as our usual image.Furthermore, there are some strange things. Observation equipment is put on two slits and it is recorded which the photon and the electron passed. At this time, they have passed one of slits certainly. And interference fringes are lost and only the marks where they passed the slit straightly remain on a screen. The act of observing has affected the condition of a photon or an electron.
Moreover, after a photon and an electron pass one slit, even if we close the slit which they did not pass, interference fringes collapse.As if a photon and an electron look back upon back and were checking the situation of the slit which has passed.

I can explain the structure of strange behavior of such photons and electrons by a certain hypothesis. It is the hypothesis "a spherical wave" and it is a central opinion of this section. The following figure illustrates change of "a spherical wave."




"A spherical wave" is the hypothesis of repeating contraction and diffusion (extension) semipermanently, unless a photon and an electron are subject to the influence from outside.Therefore, the "contraction stage" of the above figure is only located in a left end for convenience, and that is not necessarily a start. The photon and electron as a "pure simple substance" are continuing vibration spherically by the "resource" which exists in space. If I borrow the way of thinking of Einstein's general theory of relativity, I may be able to express saying "The space itself is vibrating." In this chapter, I will call it a "resource" about this vibrating existence.
Now, how to catch the "condition of having been spread most" at the right end of the above figure becomes a problem also in the continuing section. This is an equation which makes it possible to predict correctly the probability that the quantum which is "the existence as probability" will be observed. Previous quotation has description that Schrodinger drew the "wave equation."The following figure incorporated the concept. (I referred to the figure of science magazine "science of wave" (Newton Press) P88-89 on the occasion of creation of the following figure.)



The Japanese science magazine "science of a wave" has the following descriptions.

"Although the wave of the actual electron had spread in three dimensions, I drew the wave-like image of the electron in a specific direction here. The electronic waveform is related to discovery probability. With the illustration, the opacity of the electronic sphere was highly expressed about the place where discovery probability is high. The points that electronic discovery probability becomes the maximum are the peak of the next mountain, and a bottom of a valley. Moreover, the point that an electronic waveform crosses a horizontal axis is discovery probability zero. " (P89)

First, "the peak of the mountain" means the condition of having particle-ized as a result which the "resource" of space contracted to the limit, in "a spherical wave." Therefore, we can observe it. Next, "the point that an electronic waveform crosses a horizontal axis" exists in both a contraction stage and a diffusion stage for a moment. "A spherical wave" is vibration between a point in the space and infinity. (Although one end is infinity, the vibration itself becomes weaker in inverse proportion to the square of distance like gravity.) It should become being the same as that of the almost usual space as it separates distantly. Vibration goes back and forth between one point of space and infinity in the usual condition of space at the halfway point. Then, there must be the moment "distortion of space" becomes completely equal to the usual space only for a moment. A photon and an electron become "discovery probability is zero" at the moment.
The problem is "the bottom of a valley" of the wave. In spite of being in "the condition diffused most" in "a spherical wave", it becomes "discovery probability is the maximum." The theory of "the spherical wave" as a hypothesis has not failed yet. Suppose that the viewpoint was put on the center section of "a spherical wave." The condition of having contracted most, and the condition of having been spread most have a common feature. The vector is reversing both of them from contraction from diffusion and diffusion to contraction. The motion has stopped completely at the moment. That is, the central part of "a spherical wave" is in the condition of having been very alike, the moment the vector is reversed. Therefore, there is no problem as theory in our observing as particles the condition of having been spread(extension) to the utmost . Rather, that the central part in the "condition of having been spread most" of "a spherical wave" has the feature as particles brings an important meaning in this chapter final paragraph. In this section, I introduce only the feature.

Next, I explain how the electron which is "a spherical wave" moves in space. (* The description about a photon is omitted.)
In the following animation "an electronic trip", the situation until the electron ejected from the electron gun reaches a screen is expressed. I drew the figure which has set "the spherical wave" in the center of the picture. A lower flow chart figure is the description.

 



Some reservation is required in order to conclusion such a "wave."

(The hypothesis about "a spherical wave" (1))
"An electron is accelerated to the velocity of light, when ejected from an electron gun. The energy of acceleration is brought about by the extension (diffusion) action of a spherical wave. Therefore, the maximum of the extension speed of "a spherical wave" is the velocity of light. " The complex factor which also added the electron gun is also thought of about acceleration. However, considering that the electron and the photon always have the relative velocity of the "velocity of light" to surface of the earth, we should think "the electron itself accelerates to the velocity of light by its power.Moreover, when explaining strange behavior of the electron at the time of passing a double slit, it is advantageous that the maximum of the oscillating speed of "a spherical wave" is the velocity of light. This is explained later.

(The hypothesis about "a spherical wave" (2))
""A spherical wave" is a kind of inertia system (static system). "

As I stated in Chapter 4 of this book, there is no essential difference in an inertia system and a static system. Sound vibrates air and is transmitted. However, "a spherical wave" does not have such "a quality spread through the medium." I think that it is always in a kind of inertia condition like the usual substance. Therefore, when a viewpoint is put on the center of a spherical wave, the electron has repeated diffusion and contraction, standing it still on that occasion. With the relative velocity of the velocity of light, a double slit and a screen collide to it. It must be intelligible when it thinks so.
The "resource" of the space described previously is not existence of the quality in which it functions as a kind of absolute space by filling space like the air in propagation of sound. About the feature of the "resource" which is space itself, I analyze in detail in the following section. The way of thinking that the "wave" is vibrating space itself on that spot is contrary to our common sense. However, an electric field and a magnetic field are waves which vibrate without needing a medium. The way of thinking of "the spherical wave" which vibrates on that spot will not be a so strange thing, either. (All of an electric field, a magnetic field, and light are transmitted in the inside of a vacuum. Maxwell had realized light to be a kind of electromagnetic waves. Probably, this is common sense in the present age.)
The way of thinking that the electron as "a spherical wave" is a kind of inertia system brings an important meaning after the following section.

How does an electron pass a "double slit" at this time? The following figure is drawing the situation of the electron before and after double slit passage.



Since the electron which is "a spherical wave" is existence with width, it passes the slit on reservation which is different by each electron. The angle to which an electron goes into a slit. Distance with the side of the hole of a slit. And the difference between an extension stage and a contraction stage. The difference among various situations appears as a trace of a screen. However, if it is only one slit, it will be a grade which blurs the shadow of the slit which changed the electronic orbit and was reflected to the screen. The second slit has big influence here. By the difference between a contraction stage and a diffusion (extension) stage, how to drag space changes a lot and makes pseudo- "interference fringes" on a screen conjointly with sine wave vibration of "a spherical wave."

Next, I explain strange behavior of the electron at the time of passing a double slit.
When passing a slit, I think of the particle-ized case by chance as one of the processes of expansion and contraction of "a spherical wave." An electron contracts front space at a speed equal to the velocity of light, approaching at the velocity of light toward a slit board. At this time, an electron will drag front space at the velocity of light, flying at the velocity of light. Therefore, a motion of the space of the slit circumference is the minimum. And an electron goes into a diffusion (extension) stage immediately after coming out of a slit. And an electron expands space with power equal to the velocity of light, going away from a slit board at the velocity of light. That is, also in this stage, a motion of the space of the slit circumference is the minimum. Therefore, the electron which will be in the particle condition which can be observed in a slit reaches a screen on a straight orbit. Furthermore, how is it about the condition which is another "discovery probability maximum" that the electron expanded most? I will think of the case where an electron will be in this condition in a slit. An electron approaches at the velocity of light toward a slit board, extending at the velocity of light. In response to the influence of the second slit, an electronic orbit is bent greatly. However, this electron drags space at the velocity of light, going away at the velocity of light, after passing a slit, and is greatly subject to the influence of the second slit again. That is, the influence of the second slit is completely symmetrical before and behind a slit, and change of an electronic orbit is offset. Therefore, when the electron reaches the screen, it becomes the appearance which was a straight orbit. That is, the electron observed on the slit draws a straight locus, and reaches the screen. If this way of thinking is used, even if it closes another slit immediately after an electron passes a slit, the reason interference fringes collapse will also become clear. The operation which closes a slit interferes from back to the expansion-and-contraction process of the electron which is going away. Then, the orderly interference fringes which a sine wave brings about are confused.
The case which observes all the passing electrons during slit passage compulsorily is unintelligible. Interference fringes disappear also in this case. Although I do not necessarily grasp about the detailed situation of an experimental device, I try the explanation as a possibility. Another hypothesis is needed in order to think of this case.

(The hypothesis about "a spherical wave" (3))
"The central point of "a spherical wave" functions as pseudo- particles."



Previously, I said, "The central part particle-izes on the limit of both contraction and diffusion (extension)." But "pseudo- particles" differs from it. It is a concept in connection with the orbit through which an electron passes. When an electron does inertia motion of the space, even if it is in the condition of "discovery probability zero", it has not disappeared substantially. In the experiment which flies one electron at a time, the electronic trace should always remain in one of the slit board and the screen. I think that the reservation which an electron contracts with somewhere in test prototype machines, and leaves the trace as particles is decided by the passage course of the electron's central part. There is the central point of "a spherical wave" at the center of all the vectors regardless of the expansion-and-contraction condition of the wave. That is, balance is maintained to all the directions.
Contraction starts on the surface where this central point contacted the usual object regardless of observation equipment and the screen. And an electron contracts to the utmost, and when a re-particle is formed, it will jump out at the velocity of light so that a new start may be done. I think that it is "reflection." That is, the central point of "a spherical wave" functions as a fulcrum. At this time, an electron will be reset at the moment of observing. And the electron leaves the slit board at the velocity of light, expanding the space of back and front with power equal to the velocity of light. That is, the influence of another slit is minimized and the electron draws a straight orbit.

There is an experiment of a "polarizing plate", a "beam splitter", etc., etc. besides a "double slit." Although I can explain relevance with "a spherical wave" also about them, I do not do detailed explanation here.

I introduce the "path integral" in quantum mechanics which Richard Feynman who is a prominent research scholar advocated. Feynman tried to explain the reason for making interference fringes as if the electron (photon) which must be particles of a simple substance interfered with oneself in the double slit experiment. And he invented the theory "an electron (photon) follows all possible courses." According to the wave equation, the electron (photon) which is the existence as probability exists in all places as a possibility. If all the courses of the electron as those possibilities are added, explanation of strange behavior of the electron at the time of passing a double slit will be achieved. At this time, the probability of a course that an electron will fly a screen straightly from an electron gun is the highest. The course in which an electron passes the back side of the moon and the end of the universe may almost be disregarded probable.
I will think by the scheme of this book. We add all electronic courses. It should become "a sphere" which spreads in the whole universe.

In this section, I have explored the possibility based on the hypothesis that the electron and photon which are "pure simple substances" are "a spherical wave." I will describe signs that existence with a "true sphere" structure symmetrical with all the directions continues vibrating semipermanently. At this time, "change" does not seem to be suitable for it. Therefore, the flow of time in a "pure simple substance" completely differs from our usual recognition.
But there is the moment of "changing" to the "pure simple substance" which merely continues vibration semipermanently. And I think that this "change" makes gravity and mass. The concept called a "spontaneous symmetry breaking" serves as the key. About this, it is the consideration target of the following section.


- Assistant theory 1 -

About "vibration of the spherical wave" explained in this section, you should feel similarity with the "super-string theory" which realized the minimum unit of the substance to be "a vibrating string." I also think that I will become an image equal to the "three-dimensional surface of a sphere" introduced in this book of Chapter 4 if the "string" which is existence of one dimension is regarded as three dimensions. But according to bibliography, the "super-string theory" is aimed at the high dimension which exceeded three dimensions far as a result of mathematical meditation. Moreover, I try explanation about gravity or inertia using the "resource" shown in this section after the following section of this book. They are the theory which should be drawn only from a three-dimensional image. Therefore, though I refer to the knowledge of the "super-string theory" in this chapter, I do not make itself applicable to consideration.



2 True character of gravity

In the foregoing paragraph, in order to think of the right or wrong of actual existence of a "motion", I said that I should consider the "pure simple substance" which became independent of a relation with other objects completely. Therefore, I considered the "quantum" which is the minimum unit of a substance for quantum mechanics. When we consider that the quantum which is "a wave of probability" is "a spherical wave" with true sphere structure, various "strange behavior" of the quantum looked at by "double slit experiment" can be explained.

But it differs from the commonsense image that the "quantum" which is the minimum unit of a substance is "a wave which vibrates the resource of space (or space itself)."
First of all, in quantum mechanics, the quantum is set as "the existence only as probability particle-ized at the moment of observing." But there is no image which became settled about this meaning till the present. Then, the mysterious thought experiment, such as "Schrodinger's cat" etc. in the condition of not understanding whether it being dead in whether it being alive until it is observed in an experimental device, becomes the center of attention. Furthermore, various areas of investigation are derived from there.
But it is as strange as "the spherical wave" which this chapter presents being the same as it. Also the desk in the face of me, the personal computer in the face of me, a keyboard, a coffee cup, and which, I can actually touch and can feel a positive response. They have clear sense of presence. Nobody will believe that they are all constituted by "vibration of space." Even if the opinion of this chapter is true, it is necessary to think of why such a sense of presence is born to "vibration of the space which spreads in the whole universe." And it can be explained.

In the foregoing paragraph, I described the following hypothesis. A quantum (electron) is particle-ized at the time of the peak of "the wave of probability", i.e., the "discovery probability maximum." (* An experiment with an electron or a photon is generalizable to the quantum which is the minimum unit of a substance. Therefore, expression is unified into a "quantum" after this. ) The object exists with a clear response in the face of us. About the quantum inside an object, it is hard to consider that they are in the condition that observation probability is low. Therefore, the usual substance should be maintaining the condition that the observation probability of particles is high. That is, "the spherical wave" should be maintaining the condition similar to particles constantly. From now on, I will explore the reservation which such condition generates.

In the foregoing paragraph, I explained that it was a time of "a spherical wave" contracting most and taking a certain "resource" from the surrounding space for a quantum to particle-ize and for observation of it to be achieved. (* I consider "the condition of having been spread most" in the final paragraph). The following illustrations are the images of the moment of particle-izing.



Many of "resources" around "the spherical wave" in the condition of having particle-ized is taken into particles. And a "resource" returns to the density of the usual space as it separates from particles. Taking in of the "resource" by this particle has spread radiately in the whole universe. But the influence of single particles is small. Furthermore, since it vibrated at a speed equal to the velocity of light and contraction and diffusion (extension) are repeated, the plus condition and minus condition of density of a "resource" are offset, and it is hardly undistinguishable from the usual space as a result.

The conditions at which a quantum maintains particle condition are that multiple particles in the condition of having contracted to the utmost gather. The following illustrations are this image.



"A spherical wave" is in condition with few motions at the moment of contracting to a limit and changing to extending.
It is in the stable condition. When multiple particles in such condition gather, the condition similar to resonance occurs. It is important that the expansion-and-contraction condition of each particle has a difference slightly. By it, the particles of an extension stage and the particles of a contraction stage influence each other. They continue vibrating a short cycle, with the condition similar to particles maintained. It resembles the condition of having been mutually caught among multiple particles. Many "resources" is taken from the space of the surroundings because many quantums maintain particle condition. "Decrease" condition of a "resource" is maintained. Immediately near a particle group is "decrease" the largest. And "decrease" becomes weaker as distance becomes large, and it returns to the usual space.

Some bases supposing such a situation exist.

One of them is the point "multiple fermions cannot exist in the same condition as the same space."A fermion is an elementary particle used as the basis of a substance. When an elementary particle is in the condition of constituting a substance, they take a "resource" from the surrounding space. The fermion is proving the theory of this section.
There is taxonomy called a standard model to theory of elementary particles. A fermion becomes a basis of a substance and a boson conveys the power between substances. A photon belongs to a boson and an electron belongs to a fermion. (* The facts that an electron is a fermion are disadvantageous restriction in logic deployment of this book. But I build up the following hypothesis. It is the hypothesis of having boson-ized the electron when separated from the object in which it belongs. The reason is described later.)
About the feature of a fermion and a boson, description next to the book "an introduction to the super-string theory of Mr. Oguri" of Mr. Hiroshi Oguri of California Institute of Technology is easy to understand.

"The fermion which forms a substance cannot be in the condition that another particles are the same, when one particle occupies a certain condition. For example, it is the same as the ability not to put three two of coffee cups on the same space. Because a substance occupies space, even if multiple cups can be piled up upwards or it can exhibit horizontally, it cannot be put on the same space.
On the other hand, the boson can stuff particles into the same condition without limit. Therefore, supposing a commuter train exists in the world of only a boson, a passenger will not overflow vehicles full of people. Because it can stuff without limit, it never becomes no vacancy. " (P88)

If the scheme of this book is used, I can explain as follows. A fermion and a boson are one form of the quantum as "a spherical wave." A fermion is continuing vibrating short semipermanently, multiple "spherical waves" crowding and maintaining the particle condition which can be observed. And it separates from the influence of other particles, and regains spherical expansion-and-contraction motion which spreads in the whole creation. It is a boson. One of reasons is the fact that it cannot exist if a fermion is single. Mr. Frank Wilczek is explaining as follows in a book "THE LIGHTNESS OF BEING Mass,Ether,and the Unification of Forces ."

"Nobody wanted to believe that, of course, so people worked hard to smash protons, trying to find particles they could identify as single quarks. They scrutinized the debris minutely. Nobel Prizes and everlasting glory surely would shower down like sweet rain upon the heads of the discoverers. But alas, that Holy Grail proved elusive. No particle that has the properties of a single quark has ever been observed. Eventually this failure to find individual quarks, like the failure of inventors to produce a perpetual motion machine, was elevated to a principle: the Principle of Confinement. But calling it a principle didn’t make it less crazy."(P35-36)

(* This problem is one of seven "the millennium problems" which the clay mathematics research institute announced, and Mr. Hiroshi Oguri's book "strong power and weak power" has description that the prize of 1 million dollars can be got if it can prove mathematically.)

All the elementary particles are "the spherical waves" of the structure emitted to the whole universe. And particle condition is maintained and materialized only when two or more they gather. When I think as mentioned above, I can explain easily why we cannot observe a single quark.

Moreover, "THE LIGHTNESS OF BEING Mass,Ether,and the Unification of Forces" has the following description.

"
But the search for simpler building blocks inside protons and neutrons ran into a bizarre difficulty. If you bang protons together really hard, what you find coming out is . . . more protons, sometimes accompanied by their hadronic relatives. A typical outcome would be, you collide two protons at high energy, and out come three protons, an antineutron, and several π mesons. The total mass of the particles that come out is more than what went in. We discussed that possibility earlier, and it’s back again to haunt us. Instead of discovering smaller, lighter building blocks by going to higher and higher energies, and making more violent collisions, you just find more of the same. Things don’t appear to get simpler. It’s as if you smashed together two Granny Smith apples, and got three Granny Smiths, a Red Delicious, a cantaloupe, a dozen cherries, and a pair of zucchini!"(P28-29)

That is, as a "fact" by an experimental result, when two protons are thrown, protons will increase in number to three and still more various elementary particles will be added. The following theory is clear in order to explain such a strange fact. The elementary particles which constitute a substance are not hard particles which come from our everyday image, and are "vibration of space" as well as a photon altogether. By colliding at speed equal to the velocity of light in a particle accelerator, the proton which is "a spherical vibration" absorbs the energy, and is divided in multiple "spherical vibration."

Next, I would like to supplement with explanation about the reason for maintaining particle condition because multiple "spherical waves" gathers. Explanation of it is achieved by the concept of "Spontaneous symmetry breaking."
"Spontaneous symmetry breaking" is the way of thinking which Mr. Yoichiro Nambu who won the Nobel Prize advocated. The explanation in Mr. Hiroshi Oguri's book "Strong power and weak power" is easy to understand.

"Please think that many people are standing in a line and standing into a large gymnasium. This gymnasium is a perfect round shape, there is no clock in a wall, and there are also no goal of a basketball and stage. Therefore, scenery is the same whichever we look at. That is, it is in the condition of rotation symmetry.
Because there is no special direction, people who are standing there turn to which. However, they are the persons in which it is easy to follow suit without reflection, and want to turn to the same direction as surrounding people. Although they are looking at the scattering direction at first, when someone in them turns to one direction, the surrounding people will also imitate and they will all come to turn to the same direction. As a result, although the gymnasium itself is rotation symmetry, all people that are there turn to the same direction. The rotational spontaneous symmetry breaking has occurred. In this way, the "spontaneous symmetry breaking" occurred because the condition of energy was stabilized low. " (P181-182)

The following Fig. A and Fig. B applied this way of thinking to the scheme of this chapter.





Fig. A exhibits the condition of the "rotation symmetry" under above-mentioned quotation. By the scheme of this book, it is called "expansion-and-contraction symmetry." Originally each "spherical wave" which crowded is continuing expansion and contraction regardless of other "waves." But they cannot stop at one place as it is, but they should be pulled to space with a "resource" required in order to contract, and should come apart. But when constant time passes, they will cause resonance (or quantum entanglement) and they will begin expansion and contraction by the same pattern. That is, the "spontaneous symmetry breaking" of expansion and contraction occurs.
Although the above-mentioned quotation has the description "because the condition of energy was stabilized low.", the group of "a spherical wave" cannot be stabilized. It is because more than one of the "spherical wave" of the condition which can constitute a substance, i.e., the condition of multiple fermions, cannot be in the same space in the same condition. I explained it previously that the "resource" for contracting is drained. Therefore, even if particles have not overlapped with the same place, when the stage of expansion and contraction is timing different, respectively, limited "resource" can be used by turns.
It is in "Strong power and weak power" as follows.

"When all people that are in a gymnasium have turned to the same direction, big energy is required for only one person turning to a false direction in various meanings. (Omission) But he could do simply that only mere a few shakes a head at right and left. The person who was tired from having turned to the direction same for a long time moves a head a little. Then, the next person also shakes his head only a little under the influence. Furthermore, the next person also shakes his head. .... The operation at which they shake their head is transmitted like ripples in this way (Fig. 29). Although it is serious that only one person turns to another direction, in order for them to start the ripples which shake their head, energy is scarcely needed. " (P191-192)

The following Fig. C and Fig. D applied this way of thinking to the scheme of this chapter.





The example "a spherical wave" "turns to a false direction only in one person" is Fig. C. Though the supply condition of "resource" becomes advantageous to the group of "the spherical wave" in other resonance condition being a contraction stage, it is impossible to do the motion from which only one is different. It is Fig. D that the stage of expansion and contraction changes little by little by adjacent "spherical wave." In this case, limited "resource" can be mutually delivered without futility.
Following Fig. 29 shows the quotation from P193 of "Strong power and weak power." And I applied it to "the spherical wave" and I actually moved it by the animation under it.





It seems to the "ripples" of this animation that each particle (quark) is moving aslant. This "illusion" has given the big suggestion about the actual condition of "the spin of a proton." It is explained in the following section.

There is a weak point in the animation of this "spontaneous symmetry breaking" structurally. The particles in a contraction stage shift to an extension stage, after reaching the limit. At this point, it is perfect. But about the point which shifts to a contraction stage again in the middle of extension, it is difficult to explain the structure.
The particles in an extension stage are emitting a "resource."
It was saved up when contracting. The surrounding particles receive the emitted "resource" and advance contraction. If it is the theory, the particles in an extension stage should be extended directly, emitting a "resource." And it should become a boson and should jump out of a particle group.

The following hypotheses were devised in order to avoid this problem. It is the hypothesis that a fermion (quark) is continuing vibrating finely just before a contraction limit without the ability to reach.
The following animation explained it.



The boson on the left of this figure has a simple structure. In this book of Chapter 4, I described the pendulum clock which Galileo Galilei devised. "The spherical wave" of a boson is continuing vibrating semipermanently in the submicroscopic world of an elementary particle level without a fricative energy loss, with symmetry maintained. A contraction stage and extension stage has also shifted to the following stage, after reaching each limit. First of all, because it is vibration of the non-substance the "resource" of space, it does not rebound physically on the way. In the submicroscopic world without an energy loss, reaching the limit of each stage are the restrictions which shift to the following stage.
And about a fermion (quark), the "resource" of the space will be drained as the result with which multiple particles crowded to the limited space. Multiple quarks scramble for the "resource" which became insufficient to each other. And those all aim at a contraction limit. It is pulled down by other quarks if one quark goes to a contraction limit. And it is pulled down if another quark goes to a contraction limit. It is repeated. Multiple quarks are maintaining the stability as the whole as the result. It is the interpretation of "the rationale of quark confinement" when this does based on the hypothesis of this section.
The following animation explained the relation of such multiple quarks.



It is intelligible when two quarks (spherical wave) are compared to seesaw.

Two quarks (spherical wave) use up the "resource" of space required for contraction, and are continuing stopping just before a contraction limit. It is like stuffing a spring into the both ends of seesaw and seesaw maintaining level condition.
At this time, I sway seesaw. In the submicroscopic world which does not have friction etc. and does not have an energy loss, seesaw continues shaking semipermanently. The both ends of the seesaw are quarks (spherical wave), respectively. When one of the two falls greatly, another side goes up greatly. When one of the two falls small, another side goes up small. Therefore, the average value is always equal to the original level condition.
Moreover, the moment we observed, quark (spherical wave) of one of the two is upwards, and other one is downward. Even if this is upside-down in fact, the structure where one went up and one has fallen is the same. Therefore, an up quark and a down quark are continuing replacing a position by rise and fall of seesaw in practice. An elementary particle called an up quark and a down quark does not exist separately. The condition of an up quark and the condition of the down quark are produced by multiple "spherical waves" alternately.

The following animation explained this "seesaw" concretely. (However, "up""down" in a figure does not mean an up quark and a down quark.They are description based on the metaphor of "seesaw".



The "color" in the above figure "quark (color) confinement (2)" is a term of quantumchromodynamics. This is the scientific area which Mr. Yoichiro Nambu advocated. There are some kinds of the quarks which constitute a proton besides a down quark or an up quark. And it is not necessarily the always same combination. But the combination becomes "white" whenever it "colors" them as a kind of metaphor. It is the same as becoming white, when the three primary colors are mixed. I can explain this "The quark which constitutes a proton as a whole always maintains constant condition." It is the proof of three quarks struggling for the "resource" of the space where this "white" was restricted. The "resource" of space has a clear limit and three quarks are scrambling for it alternately.

By the above theory, explanation becomes possible also about the true character of "the spin of a proton."
The famous dispute of Newton and Leibniz was introduced at this beginning of Chapter 6. It is the dispute "on what rotation of an object is based." Inside a proton, three quarks maintain the condition in front of a contraction limit, and are vibrating alternately. The situation supposes that it is visible to the pseudo- "spin." It is not necessary to confront the problem "on what rotation of an object is based." at this time. That is, it can explain "The spin of the proton is done as itself."
But in the stage of this section, the above theory cannot be explained correctly. In the following section, after considering "mass" and "inertia", I will tell about this "pseudo- spin of a proton" again.





Now, it is about "the true character of gravity" of the title of this section from here.

That is, while the "spherical wave" in the condition of having materialized has maintained the condition (condition which can be observed) near particles, it is crowded with plurality. And they are continuing vibrating gradually to different timing little by little, respectively. Therefore, the condition of the "decrease" of the space around a substance (high density condition of multiple "spherical waves") is also continuing changing gradually.
Think of what occurs, when other "substance" approaches the "substance" in such condition. The following image drawings expressed it.



Materialized multiple "spherical waves" tries to drag a "resource" spherically from the surrounding space in order to try to maintain particle condition. The strength to drag has spread radiately in all the directions and the whole universe, though it becomes weaker as distance becomes far. Since the "substance" which approaches has taken the "resource" from the space of its surroundingsand particle-ized, supply of the "resource" of the space of each direction will decrease compared with the usual space. In order to compensate an insufficient part, those "substances" drags the space of the direction mutually more deeply.

It is a final opinion of this section that this is attraction and it is the true character of gravity.


- Assistant theory 2 -







Fluid mechanics suggests alternative to quantum orthodoxy (MIT News)

There is an experiment proving the hypothesis of particle-izing of the "spherical wave" group by a "spontaneous symmetry breaking."
I would like you to see the upper YouTube image. The box which filled liquefied silicon is vibrated on constant frequency, and the drop of silicon is hung down there. Then, the drop is not absorbed by the surface, but it starts a dance, vibrating up and down floated in the air. It not only floats in the air, but many-fold concentric "wave" also spreads focusing on a drop. The "wave" is not based on contact of a drop and a surface. The image shows it clearly. "Something" radiately spreading focusing on the drop and the vibrating surface interfered, and the "wave" has occurred. It is very interesting that concentric "wave" which came floating to the surface like relief is hardly moving. If it occurs since the surface contacted the drop, the "wave" should spread radiately and it should diffuse it one after another. It is "the frozen wave" completely.
At the 3:40 time of a lower YouTube image, the relation of a double slit experiment and an experiment of this drop is asserted.
Under those images, the link to the report about the experiment in "MIT News" is set up. It is written to the report that this experiment is proving "pilot-wave theory" which Louis De Broglie who is one of the founders of quantum mechanics advocated. In "pilot wave theory", the elementary particles itself are hard particles and the guide wave is emitted to surroundings from those one per piece. It swayed the particle main part and has made strange behavior of the quantum looked at by double slit experiment etc. And it is explained that this theory should re-appear as a theory replaced from "Copenhagen interpretation."

Now, "the spherical wave" which I am telling in this chapter should be clearly positioned as a developed type of "pilot wave theory." It is as follows when strange "dance" of the drop in this experiment is explained using the scheme of this chapter.
"Something" that is emitted from a drop and draws a concentric interference wave on the surface will not be caused by the "spherical wave" simple substance. The above-mentioned animation of the particle group by a "spontaneous symmetry breaking" has suggested. The group of "a spherical wave" is divided into a certain amount of group, and it is vibrating regularly, maintaining the condition of having contracted to the limit.
Because a drop and the surface are the same liquefied silicon, those vibrational frequency must be the same. (Or it is guessed that silicon has a quality in which vibration synchronizes easily per molecule). In addition to a drop not being simply absorbed with surface tension etc., the space of those surroundings goes into a diffusion (extension) stage at the same time. Then, the reverse situation of the structure of the above-mentioned gravity is born. By both sides being in a diffusion (extension) stage, when the oscillating vector of the surface is upward as timing exactly then, the "resource" of the space between a drop and the surface becomes an excess for a moment, and it works as a repulsion and has bounded the drop upwards from the surface. Conversely, when the space of the surroundings goes into a contraction stage, the completely same situation as the figure of the above-mentioned gravity (attraction) will be born, and it will attract each other's both sides. The scale of jumping and fall changes with the condition of vibration of the surface. This is repeated for a long time.
The concentric wave of the surface shows the condition of the space around a drop. The group of the "spherical wave" which is resonating inside a drop has repeated expansion and contraction short, maintaining the contracted state near a limit as a result of a "spontaneous symmetry breaking." "Spontaneous symmetry breaking" does not occur, but if expansion and contraction are perfect, the wave produced by expansion and contraction should be diffused radiately. But since the group of "the spherical wave" particle-ized is vibrating an extremely short distance at the extremely short interval, it is difficult for the wave around a drop to spread, it is pulled back, and is continuing maintaining the almost same condition. "freeze" That is, be. By the "wave" which was spreading and froze, the area of the "decrease" and the "dense" area of the "resource" of space have occurred by turns according to the distance from a drop. The area of a "decrease" pulls up the surface and a "dense" area depresses a surface. This makes "the frozen wave" of the surface.

The drop which floats from the surface is telling the rationale and the existence possibility of the repulsion (antigravity) suggestively. The explanation about this is a role of the final paragraph in this chapter.



3 What is mass? - Coincidence of inertial mass and gravitational mass -

In this chapter, I made the viewpoint the relation theory that not the attribute of the object itself but the relation between objects made "a motion." And I have considered the flow of the time in a pure simple substance.

First, in Section 1, it was considered that the "quantum" as a pure simple substance was "a wave which vibrates spherically." Then, explanation of the generating factor of gravity is achieved. It haves to be based on the absolute space which Newton advocated also with neither inertia motion nor mass. It is not necessary to consider a relative relation with the substance of the whole universe that Mr. Ernst Mach and Mr. Einstein advocated. By the scheme of this book, I said that explanation of all is achieved. First, "gravity" was considered in the foregoing paragraph. And in this section, "inertia" and the true character of "mass" are considered.

The above-mentioned "Schrodinger's kittens" have the following description.

" This may be related to another mystery that has worried scientists, off and on, for many decades – the puzzle of inertia. Out in space, where there is no friction, if you give an object a push it will keep moving in the direction you pushed it, until it receives another push. It takes energy to make an object change its direction, or to make it move faster or to slow it down. This is such an important point that the Lorentz- invariant frames of reference of observers moving at constant velocity are often simply referred to as ‘inertial frames’. But how does the object ‘know’ that its motion is (or is not) changing? "(P178)

If a "motion" is produced with the relative relation of multiple objects and is unrelated on a single object, how has it perceived that the object in inertia condition has it in inertia condition? Reactive resistance arises by influence which breaks inertia condition. It means that the object itself has perceived that.
Motion by "influence which breaks inertia condition" is accelerated motion. That is, the mystery of this "inertia motion" is equivalent to the mystery of "acceleration." How is the acceleration timed supposing only one object is accelerating in the universe without the object to compare? Moreover, for example, suppose that a photograph was taken with the camera, completely aligning with it and accelerating by side of the accelerated object. The "object to accelerate" of the state of rest should be photoed by the middle of the recorded image. That is, depending on the view, acceleration can also be called "motion" as a relative relation with other objects. If it is right, why does reactive resistance arise on the object in the case of acceleration?
This "reactive resistance" is concerned also with the definition of mass. It is in the clause of "mass" of Wikipedia, saying "Mass is the quantity showing the degree of the objective difficulty of moving."

I will check. "Inertia motion", "accelerated motion", "mass." These are all the same viewpoints that set a problem to 1, and should make those generating factors clear at the same time. And it is possible.

I will explain the following animation. A group of the "spherical wave" (= ordinary "object") in inertia (quiescence) condition particle-ized is pushed with the stick of the metal which came out from the right. And it is accelerated to the inertia (quiescence) condition of different relative velocity from the original inertia condition.



The particle group in inertia (quiescence) condition is in the condition of having been stabilized in the middle, vibrating the space of the surroundings spherically. One per piece of the particles as "a spherical wave" is continuing vibrating per group by a "spontaneous symmetry breaking", maintaining the condition of having contracted to the limit.
A metal stick appears from the right there and it pushes the particle group. Because the metal stick cannot push space, only the main part of the particle group which crowded will be pushed. The particles as "a spherical wave" are in either a contraction stage or a diffusion stage. Whichever it is in the stage, "a spherical wave" is trying to maintain the "resource" of the surrounding space at the condition according to the stage. The vector quantity which the metal stick worked on will be added to the original condition, and it will shift. For example, "the spherical wave" in the contraction stage of the side which touches the metal stick drags a "resource" from far more. It serves as reactive resistance. This is the true character of the "inertial mass" as the objective difficulty of moving.



This "reactive resistance" appears only within while the metal stick is pushing the particle group, and until after a metal stick separates, it is not maintained. (When it continues, inconsistency of accelerating backward although power is not acting arises). Because, "the spherical wave" has oscillating speed equal to the velocity of light at the maximum, as Section 1 described. The particle group which had the central point shifted by the metal stick makes a spherical new wave immediately. Then, the residual part of the wave before it is diffused toward the end of the universe at the velocity of light. It does not catch up, even if it pursues the wave which escapes at the velocity of light at the velocity of light. Therefore, "reactive resistance" occurs only within while being pushed on the metal stick.
The particle group which the metal stick left is stabilized after being accelerated, and it begins inertia (quiescence) motion. Although it differs relatively to the speed before acceleration, if an observation viewpoint is moved to the central part, it will not change at all physically with former inertia condition. The particle group is continuing expansion and contraction at the center of the spherical wave. It is the essence of inertia (quiescence) motion.

"Gravitational mass" is introduced in order to supplement with the descriptive content of this section. This is the mass used as the basis which makes the power in the case of acceleration by the gravity to an object. Coincidence of "inertial mass" and "gravitational mass" is confirmed by the experiment to the measurement limit. This is called "equivalence principle." Einstein suggested by the thought experiment and set it as the base of his general theory of relativity. It is famous episode that he called it by himself "the whole life best good idea." But the reason "inertial mass" and "gravitational mass" correspond is not explained till the present.

Lower animation explained generating of "gravitational mass."



The condition of the "decrease" of the "resource" of space is held in the space around the particle group which maintained the condition of having contracted to the limit. When two particle groups (namely, two objects) in such condition approach, in order to compensate shortage of the "resource" of a mutual direction, the work which drags space mutually more deeply is attraction (gravity). It is good to think that the earth is under the above-mentioned anime. It is dragged in the space of huge "decrease" around the earth, and a particle group accelerates and drops from a top. Because gravity drags the whole space, the object which drops is not different from inertia condition at all, and is continuing being located at the center of a spherical wave. Someone is standing on the lower part of it, and he catches the particle group. Because the person cannot push space, only the main part of the particle group which crowded is stopped there. On the person's palm, the particle group repeats expansion and contraction. Therefore, expansion and contraction of the particle group on a palm are in the condition that the vector was always added toward the lower part. It serves as "reactive resistance" and continues depressing the person's palm. This is the true character of "gravitational mass."



Although, as for the illustration of upper "gravitational mass", the lower part of the person's leg is a particle group, this is drawn being conscious of the illustration of the gravity of the foregoing paragraph last. There is also an aim which emphasizes "attraction is based on the interaction of two objects." It will become the earth if the scale of a particle group underfoot is made extremely huge.

Now, as mentioned above, to the substance in condition equal to inertia (quiescence), "inertial mass" and "gravitational mass" occur, when power works from outside. The acceleration directions to the relative velocity of the object and observer only differ (that is, appearance). "Inertial mass" is acceleration with a metal stick. "Gravitational mass" is the slowdown by the person's hand. Although the subjective viewpoints in the case of observation differ, they are completely theoretically the same about the space of the surroundings from a particle group tearing off. Lower animation imagines it.



As mentioned above, the "equivalence principle" can be explained very simply. By that, it should be set to one of the proof with an effective paradigm of this book as a scheme explaining "mass."It is as "Occam's razor."

The proof of the above way of thinking is "the spin of a proton" introduced in the foregoing paragraph.





A proton (hadron) does "precession" and "circular motion" in a strong magnetic field. That is, a proton is not that of "having the feature similar to a spin", and has constantly a quality near the usual "the rotation (spin)."
This is a very strange thing. Let our daily "spin" be an example. For example, a top rotates with the rotational energy from outside. And by friction which occurs between a grounding part or air, the power will be weakened and it will stop soon. Although a heavenly body seems to rotate semipermanently, this is because there are few factors which decrease energy in a vacuum. But the proton which does a "precession" is subject to the influence from outside by the strong magnetic field. The condition is changed to the "precession" just because it is affected. When it thinks so, as the rotating top stops soon, a proton should also stop. But a proton does not stop.
The proton may have dual structure like a gyroscope, and it may be rotating so that the outer shell and the internal structure may pass independently. If it is right, even if an "outer shell" is fixed by a strong magnetic field, an internal structure rotates and the proton can maintain a "precession." But where does the energy which makes such rotation maintain semipermanently come from? A proton seems to be a perpetual motion machine. First of all, present-day physics is premised on relative space. Einstein's theory of relativity will be the symbol. If premised on relative space, in order to explain a "spin", you have to explain first the basis of the motion a "spin." Because the moon standing for us is not standing it still in fact.

The way of thinking "signs that three quarks expand and contract have produced the pseudo- spin" can solve all the problems.

The spherical wave which maintained the condition of having contracted to near the limit decreases "the resource of space" of its surroundings. Inertial mass has occurred because the object gets into the center. In the above-mentioned "pseudo-spin", three spherical waves (quark) have maintained inertia condition, respectively. Three quarks scramble for a "resource", without moving each place. It has produced the "pseudo-spin." It has made the "spin" as a kind of illusion. But three spherical waves (quark) have caused change of mass inside the proton. The mass of the spherical wave (quark) of the high degree of contraction is larger than other spherical waves (quark). Therefore, when three quarks contract one by one, the central point of the mass of the proton moves in the inside, drawing a circle. The circular motion and the precession as itself are produced by it, without depending on absolute space and an absolute coordinate. So to speak, a proton makes itself an absolute coordinate and is doing the "spin."
Conversely, the fact that the structure of strange "spin" of a proton can be explained without depending on absolute space is the proof of the validity of the hypothesis of this section.

Although it is a digression, about the energy coming from where also about rotation of a planet and a fixed star, and rotation of a galaxy, they are outstanding problems. "The pseudo-spin of the proton as itself" also explains the generating factor.
By resonance (quantum entanglement), three quarks proton-ize and start a "pseudo-spin." They further gather and constitute a substance. Multiple substances are influenced by weak mass change of each inside. And they begin to turn around the mutual surroundings to the end of long time slowly slowly. The "spin" advances on various levels, such as a planet scale, a sidereal scale, and a Galaxy scale, and produces a complicated structure of the Galaxy. Probably, computer simulation will be possible for the scenario of this "space creation."



- Assistant theory 3 -

The person who heard the generating factor of "mass" should visualize a "Higgs boson." But in "Strong power and weak power", Mr. Hiroshi Oguri is explaining as follows.

"But in fact, it is only 1% of the mass of the substance in our personal appearance that the Higgs boson is concerned." (P28)

I think that there is no margin into which other elements enter "1%" because the structure of the "mass" which the scheme of "the spherical wave" of this chapter draws is completed by itself. But when "inertial mass" and "gravitational mass" put a viewpoint on the center of a particle group, it is a premise of this book that the condition of space is not different from usual. Therefore, though other elements enter, it must be common to both sides. Even if it is "1%", I do not want to make the inconsistency with the argument accepted in the world.



4 Possibility of an antigravity (repulsion) substance - The structure of inertial mass zero -

Now, although this chapter foregoing paragraph has written one hypothesis for the "fact" actually observed, the following contents of Section 4 are completely fictions.

I would like you to see the animation of "a spherical wave called the quantum" of this chapter beginning part. Around the central part with particle-like appearance, the "resource" of space repeats contraction and extension (extension), and is continuing vibrating semipermanently.
"Black" of the central part, "white" of the surrounding space. I am expressing signs that the central part contracted to the limit and it has taken "the resource (yellow)" from the surrounding space.
Conversely, "white" of the central part, "black" of the surrounding space. I am expressing signs that the central part expanded to the limit and has sprinkled "the resource (yellow)" to the surrounding space.

I mainly discussed the contracted state to the foregoing paragraph. In this Section 4, I describe a hypothesis for diffusion (extension) condition. It is about antigravity (repulsion) substance's existence possibility.

In Section 1, I introduced another interpretation of the wave function of quantum mechanics. It is two cases that the discovery probability of a quantum becomes the maximum. It is in the condition of having contracted to the limit, and the condition diffused to the limit. When a viewpoint is put on the center section of "a spherical wave", the condition of having contracted most, and the condition of having been spread most are well alike. For a moment, those motions are both in the condition of having stopped completely. That is, the central part of "a spherical wave" is in the condition of having been very alike.
When thinking such, the contents of Section 2 and Section 3 mainly discussed for a contracted state are applied also to diffusion (extension) condition.

The following illustrations cut off the moment of being spread to the limit of the "spherical wave" animation of this chapter introduction.



As the beginning part of this chapter of Section 2 explained, the "wave" of single particles has spread in the whole universe, thinning as it becomes far. Because the "wave" is vibrating at a speed equal to the velocity of light, in the surrounding space, the condition of the "decrease" of a "resource" and the "dense" condition of a "resource" interchange in an instant, and it can hardly distinguish them with the usual space as the result. Furthermore, it is the usual substance that a quantum group turns into a particle group (a boson group forming a fermion group), and is making the contracted state which can be observed maintain by a "spontaneous symmetry breaking." If the central part when it contracts to a limit, and the central part when spread to a limit are alike as condition of a "wave", the "spontaneous symmetry breaking" should occur also in diffusion (extension) condition.

The following images expressed it.



But this figure has a structural weak point.
In the usual fermion (proton), it is that multiple quarks scramble for the "resource" of space to each other, and draws each other strongly. But the power which separates to each other should be produced to the group of the quark of this "spherical wave diffused to the limit" on the quality of "diffusion." Therefore, as for multiple quarks, it is natural to think that it will come apart immediately.

The following animation showed a possibility that the group of "the spherical wave" near the diffusion limit pulled each other.



The left usual fermion (proton) is maintaining the structure stable by scrambling for the "resource" of space to each other. On the other hand, in the dark fermion (tentative name) of the right, the "resource" of the space of each circumference of quarks (spherical waves) is in superfluous condition to the limit. If it is the essence of the motion "diffusion" that quarks emit the "resource", in a situation with it superfluous to the limit, the only loophole is the mutual quarks themselves. In the inside of a dark fermion (tentative name), a quark nears each other so that it may be pushed into superfluous "resource" of each surroundings. And it continues vibrating just before the diffusion limit, forcing a "resource" mutually. Then, the quarks in diffusion condition can also start a "spontaneous symmetry breaking."

If such a "substance" exists really, what kind of the characteristic does it have?
If the usual substance clothed in the space of the "decrease" of a "resource" on the body has attraction, "diffusion" particle group conversely clothed in "dense" space on the body should have a repulsion. As mentioned above, I can also explain simply. But I would like to advance argument somewhat carefully here.

In Section 2, I introduced the "frozen wave" by the drop of silicon. The drop of the silicon danced floated in the air without touching the vibrating surface has suggested existence of antigravity (repulsion). "Diffusion" particle group maintains the "resource" of the space of the surroundings at condition with superfluous supply. By very small vibration of particle each, the "oversupply condition" around a particle group holds the appearance. The "frozen wave" around the drop of silicon has suggested it.
Suppose that this "substance" is put on the surface of the earth of our earth. The usual substance is clothed in the space of a "decrease" to the surroundings. Therefore, the "resources" of the direction of the substance runs short. The earth tries to drag the space of the direction deeply. This is gravity (attraction). Conversely, the substance constituted by "diffusion" particle group is clothed in "dense" space to the surroundings, and the "resource" of the direction of the substance becomes oversupply. The gravity of the earth bounds the "substance" off in order to try to maintain the condition of the "decrease" of its surroundings. Power opposite to the usual substance acts on the "substance." The "substance" bounds off to the outside of the circle of the gravity of the earth, accelerating toward sky from surface of the earth. That is, this substance is an "antigravity substance."

Moreover, this "antigravity substance" has the same inertial mass as the usual substance. It is because the space around "diffusion" particle group should also try to maintain "dense" condition like "the frozen wave" of the drop of silicon. Therefore, the same explanation as "inertial mass" of the foregoing paragraph can be performed also with this "antigravity substance."

Furthermore, when the same "antigravity substances" approaches, the "resource" of the space between both will become oversupply, and they will separate mutually. But when a usual substance and an antigravity substance with the same inertial mass approach, by the theory of this book, it will be strange. Because the "resource" of the direction of an antigravity substance is oversupply, the power which keeps away the space of the direction generates. Conversely, because the "resources" of the direction of the usual substance is insufficient, the power which pulls the space of the direction generates. If it is the same inertial mass, because each attraction and repulsion are also completely equivalent, between these two substances, power will not act at all.

But the case on which a usual substance and antigravity substance were piled up completely is interesting.
When a viewpoint is put on the change in the "resource" of space, the condition of having contracted to the limit, and the condition of having been spread to the limit must be one of perfect antiphase condition. (Otherwise, it cannot become semipermanent repetitive exercises). If two the "substances" of perfect antiphase condition can be piled up, it cannot be different from the usual space at all.

The following "numerical formulas" is the image.



In fact, each particle occupies each space and usual substances and antigravity substances do not overlap from the point "more than two fermions cannot exist in one space." But if the plywood which made the antigravity substance sandwiches with the usual substance is made, it is possible to bring the "resource" of the space of the surroundings close to the usual space.

What kind of the characteristic does such a structure have?

Neither attraction (gravity) nor a repulsion acts on the structure (plywood) made with the usual substance and antigravity substance of the same inertial mass, but it drifts the air lightly. Furthermore, the inertial mass of the structure becomes almost equal to zero. And it reacts directly to the power of influencing. For example, if we push it with a metal stick, any huge structures will be accelerated to the same speed as the metal stick pushed within an instant. Reaction does not occur in the case. In fact, we cannot make inertial mass zero completely, because it is impossible to pile up each substance completely. Moreover, there is also air resistance on the surface of the earth. However, compared with the structure of only the usual substance, the "structure" by two kinds of substances should have the clearly unusual motion characteristic.

Now, the story goes into the empty dream after this. If this "antigravity substance" and "the structure of inertial mass zero" are used, what kind of thing will become possible?

First, this antigravity substance will disappear to the sky in space without a ceiling in the twinkling of an eye, doing gravity acceleration reverse. Although we are difficult for control in such a substance, there is a method of using it.
For example, if it goes back and forth with the heavenly body of the mass of the same grade as the earth, a travel will become possible, without needing the fuel for travel almost. The space rocket made from the antigravity substance is rapidly accelerated by 1G with the gravity of the earth. (Acceleration power becomes weaker gradually as it separates from the earth). And it becomes speed zero, when another heavenly body of same 1G was neared, it slows down rapidly conversely and it reaches the heavenly body. We moor a space rocket to a heavenly body at the moment. (This story has disregarded the air resistance of each heavenly body, and the relative velocity between astronomical, etc.)

The structure which combined the usual substance and antigravity substance of the same mass should serve as a daily worthy existence more than an antigravity substance.
For example, it is only air which is resisted to the thrust of the airplane made from such a structure. Air resistance occurs according to the volume of the airplane. Therefore, the thrust which pushes away the air of a direction of movement is required. But because the inertial mass of the main part of the body is zero, it accelerates by merely few thrusts in the twinkling of an eye. Conversely, just as we cut the thrust, it slows down to speed zero within an instant under the influence of air resistance. That is, a motion equal to a "Flying saucer" becomes possible.
What kind of motion does such a structure do in space? If we think simply, the object of inertial mass zero will be completely aligned with acceleration of combustion explosion of the fuel used as a thrust. If that is right, people's body cannot bear the G. But if people's body can be wrapped in the space suit made from the antigravity substance with inertial mass equivalent to the weight and itself can be brought close to inertial mass zero, it should be able to follow as if it was doing free fall to any acceleration.

Of course, this is an empty dream. Even if the above substances do not exist, because I can explain at a word "The diffusion condition of a quantum does not cause a "spontaneous symmetry breaking"", it does not become the counterevidence of the theory up to Section 3 of this chapter.
But if a "substance" with such the characteristic and the "structure" exist, they should become one proof of the theory of this chapter.


In this book, I have said that the relation between an observer and an object produces "a motion." In the observer's brain, the "motion" induces a difference of the reaction of a neuron group. And they are synthesized in stereogram and produce "time recognition."
Of course, both of we and targets observed are "objects." Furthermore, we are the lumps of a huge quantity of a fermion. They have mass. They do not overlap to each other. And they are existences which maintain inertia (quiescence) condition, unless power is applied.
Please imagine if we are bosons (lights). And please imagine in the universe the condition that there are only bosons. Those bosons can overlap one place without limit. They are always flying about the universe at constant speed, without being interfered.
That is, bosons do not interfere each other.

They are not affected to each other but only merely continue vibrating spherically. Is "time" flowing there? The "time" in the world only with bosons completely differs from "time" in the everyday meaning which we recognize. The "Time" in the world of only lights (bosons) is continuing vibrating by turns toward the past and the future from the "present." That is, they are maintaining symmetry.
In such the universe, multiple bosons which nestled up by chance begin to resonate (or quantum entanglement). And the "resource" around those bosons is drained, and they maintain a contracted state and are stabilized. The moment this "spontaneous symmetry breaking" occurred, a boson is fermion-ized and a "substance" is born in the world. Furthermore, when two or more "substances" begins to be made, a "relation" is produced and a "motion" is produced. And "the flow of time" occurs and the existence of the "observer" who recognizes it is achieved.

"Time" and "Mind" were produced by the "spontaneous symmetry breaking" in the sea of lights.



(End)







-References-

"Kūkan no nazo jikan no nazo : uchū no hajimari ni semaru butsurigaku to tetsugaku.(Mystery of space Mystery of time -Physics and philosophy approach the beginning of the universe-)" by Soshichi Uchii (Tōkyō : Chūō Kōron Shinsha, 2006.)
"Schrödinger's kittens and the search for reality : solving the quantum mysteries" by John Gribbin (Boston : Little, Brown & Co., ©1995.)
"Naruhodo yoku wakaru nami no saiensu : Oto hikari denjiha jishinha.(science of wave)" (Tōkyō : Nyūtonpuresu, 2009.)
"Ryōshi no gyakusetsu" by Akio Hosoya, Tanimura Shogo (Tōkyō : Nikkeisaiensu, 2014.)
"The grand design" by Stephen Hawking, Leonard Mlodinow (New York : Bantam Books, ©2010.)
"Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's Life in Science " by Lawrence M. Krauss (New York : Bantam Books, ©2010.)
"The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces " by Frank Wilczek (New York, NY : Basic Books, ©2008.)
"Juryoku towa nanika : Ainshutain kara chogen riron e uchu no nazo ni semaru." by Hiroshi Ōguri (Tōkyō : Gentōsha,2012)
"Tsuyoi chikara to yowai chikara : higgusu ryūshi ga uchū ni kaketa mahō o toku.(Strong power and weak power)" by Hiroshi Ōguri (Tōkyō : Gentōsha, 2013)
"Ōguri sensei no chōgen riron nyūmon : kyūjigen sekai ni atta kyūkyoku no riron.(an introduction to the super-string theory of Mr. Oguri)" by Hiroshi Ōguri (Tōkyō : Kōdansha, 2013.)
"Jikan ninshiki to iu sakkaku : nisengohyakunen no nazo o toku (Time consciousness in the neural illusion -Solution of 2,500 year old puzzle-)" by Norimichi Shutō (Tōkyō : Gentōsharunessansu, 2013.)








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